Plex Media Server – Convert CRT to Plex SSL Compatible Certificate

If you’re like me and you use Let’s Encrypt, then it seems sometime semi-recently Plex changed the way their SSL certificates work. I used to just generate a simple .p12 certificate to use with Plex, but it seems that wasn’t good enough anymore.

After some research, it appears the encryption algorithms needed to be updated on the certificate I was generating.

Simply adding the following to my openssl command solved the problem:
-certpbe AES-256-CBC -keypbe AES-256-CBC -macalg SHA256

So the full command becomes something like this:
openssl pkcs12 -certpbe AES-256-CBC -keypbe AES-256-CBC -macalg SHA256 -export -out plex.p12 -inkey -in -certfile

I just hit the enter key when it asks for a password since I am only using this certificate locally. You could add -passout ‘pass:’ to do that automatically. Which works wonderfully as I just scp my certs out of pfSense from /cf/conf/acme. I’ve still been experimenting with that and in some cases, e.g. unifi, I’ve found it better to use the fullchain file and not the all file. In other cases I use the all.pem file.

In Plex > Network settings, set the path to this certificate and leave the key field blank.

Installing Mosquitto MQTT in Portainer

Updated 9-2-2023: fixed a path issue

This is fairly quick, with some configuration edits required at the end. In this guide, we will be installing Mosquitto MQTT inside of Portainer. If you need to install Portainer, that guide is available here.

In your Portainer environment (local typically), click on Stacks on the left hand side. Then on the right hand of the page, click on + Add Stack. At the top of the add stack screen you’ll need to give your stack a name. This name will also be prepended to any volumes we create in the stack. I chose mosquitto for my stack name.

Then, you’ll need to paste in a compose file. Here is what I’m using, and what the remainder of the guide will be based upon:

version: "3.9"

    container_name: "mosquitto"
    restart: "unless-stopped"
      - "TZ=EST5EDT"

    hostname: "ubmqtt"
    image: "eclipse-mosquitto"

      - "1883:1883/tcp"

      - "/etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro"
      - "data:/mosquitto/config"
      - "data:/mosquitto/data"
      - "data:/mosquitto/log"

You’ll want to change EST5EDT to a location in your timezone (see this list to get yours).
You may also want to change the hostname, Personally, I have not made use of the hostnames. You can remove it entirely for a randomly generated hostname.

In my volumes section, I have mapped localtime. I don’t know that this is necessary (same for the TZ environment variable), but I like to just add them to everything in case something does need it. Frigate, for example, definitely does.

The compose file will create a volume, mosquitto_data, and everything will reside in that volumes root directory (/var/lib/docker/volumes/mosquitto_data/_data).

You’ll want to deploy the stack at this point, and then stop the stack shortly after so we can make a few changes.

Open up a shell, or SSH into your server, and become the root user, either with su if you know your root password, or sudo su.

cd /var/lib/docker/volumes/mosquitto_data/_data
touch passwd
nano -w mosquitto.conf

Please also take note of the touch passwd command in the above snippet. This will create a blank passwd file for us to use in a moment.

I use nano to edit my files, you can use whichever editor you are comfortable with. If you’re in a GUI, I can’t help you. Below are the main changes you’ll need to make. Since /mosquitto/data is mapped to the mosquitto_data volume, there is no need to make any subfolders.


# if you change the listener, you'll need to change your stack port to match
listener 1883
persistence true
persistence_file mosquitto.db
persistence_location /mosquitto/data

# logging to stderr will show the logs in portainers logs output
log_dest stderr
# you can also log to a file:
log_dest file /mosquitto/log/mosquitto.log
# the types of log entries we will receive:
log_type error
log_type warning
log_type notice
log_type information
log_timestamp true
log_timestamp_format %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S

# do not allow anonymous access to this mqtt server
allow_anonymous false

# the password file for mosquitto mqtt
password_file /mosquitto/data/passwd

After the configuration file is in place, the last step is to add a user for accessing Mosquitto (quick edit: I believe you’ll need to start your mosquitto stack before the below command will work):

docker exec -it mosquitto mosquitto_passwd /mosquitto/data/passwd your_mqtt_username

Run the above command as sudo, or as a user that is part of the docker group. It will prompt you for a password which is up to you to create. You can replace your_mqtt_username with whatever makes sense to you. For example, my MQTT user is frigate so that Frigate NVR can access the MQTT server as a user named frigate. You may just want to add one generic user instead and use that for all services.

And that’s it! You should now be able to start your Mosquitto stack and the logs should indicate it is listening on port 1883.

2023-08-01T15:29:12: mosquitto version 2.0.15 starting
2023-08-01T15:29:12: Config loaded from /mosquitto/config/mosquitto.conf.
2023-08-01T15:29:12: Opening ipv4 listen socket on port 1883.
2023-08-01T15:29:12: Opening ipv6 listen socket on port 1883.
2023-08-01T15:29:12: mosquitto version 2.0.15 running

Random side note: If you want to install nano inside of the mosquitto container for some reason (docker exec -it mosquitto sh), you’ll need to use the apk command. apk update; apk add nano

Installing Docker & Portainer

Updated 9-2-2023: fixed a few path issues

If you do not have Docker installed already, here is the link to install Docker (properly) on Ubuntu Linux:

curl -fsSL | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/docker-ubuntu.gpg

echo "deb [arch="$(dpkg --print-architecture)" signed-by=/etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/docker-ubuntu.gpg] "$(. /etc/os-release && echo "$VERSION_CODENAME")" stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list > /dev/null

sudo apt update; sudo apt install docker-ce docker-ce-cli docker-buildx-plugin docker-compose-plugin

And to install Portainer, you can follow their official instructions:

But basically it comes down to the below two commands.

The second ‘docker run’ command is what you would use if you have an SSL certificate and key to use. In the second command, I am mapping the local folder /etc/ssl/private to inside the portainer docker container as /certs. So then Portainer can reference the certificates at /certs. You’ll need to change the path to match where you store the certificates.

docker volume create portainer_data

docker run -d --name portainer -p 9443:9443 --restart always -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock -v portainer_data:/data portainer/portainer-ce:latest

If you want to install Portainer with SSL support, map your SSL certificate directory (in this example, to /certs) and add the sslcert and sslkey options:

docker run -d --name portainer -p 9443:9443 --restart always -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock -v /etc/ssl/private:/certs:ro -v portainer_data:/data portainer/portainer-ce:latest --sslcert /certs/yourcert.crt --sslkey /certs/yourcert.key

Once installed, you can access Portainer at http://<machine.ip>:9443 (or https:// if using SSL)

Click on the “local” environment in the middle of the page to connect to it after logging in.

Stacks on the left hand menu is where you can go to paste Docker-Compose files which we will be using in the following guides.

Containers is where anything you start from the command line will show up (using docker run).

Cloning Boot Partitions / Add Third Disk to ZFS Mirror on pfSense

Assuming you have a pool, pfSense, in a mirror of disks ada0p3 and ada1p3. We want to add ada2 as a third disk to the mirror array. By default, pfSense ZFS mirror installation will use p1 (partition 1) for boot and p2 for swap.

gmirror status, zpool list, and zpool status [pool] can be used to help determine names to use below.

First we will clone one of the existing drives partition tables to the new disk:

  • gpart backup ada0 | gpart restore -F ada2

Then we will use dd to mirror the boot partition:

  • dd if=/dev/ada0p1 of=/dev/ada2p1 bs=1M

We will use gmirror to clone the swap partition:

  • gmirror insert swap ada2p1

And for the pool you can either add a spare or an active third disk.

  • Hot Spare: zpool add pfSense spare ada2p3
  • Active Disk: zpool attach pfSense ada2p3

Removal Process (10-21-2023):

  • gmirror remove swap ada2p2
  • zpool detach pfSense ada2p3

WireGuard IPv4 / IPv6 VPN + pfSense Setup Guide

This guide will attempt to help you setup a WireGuard VPN on your pfSense (2.6.0) firewall / router. By the end of this you should be able to connect to your VPN with a mobile device (Android / iPhone) or laptop / PC. This will not walk you through every facet of the install as I am going to assume you know how to install packages and apps.

On your mobile device, you’ll need to install the WireGuard application from the App Store / Play Store.
Windows users will need to download the client from the WireGuard website:

And of course, in pfSense, you’ll need to install WireGuard from the package manager.

We’ll get to configuring the clients later and focus on setting up the pfSense side first. As a means of avoiding confusion, I am also going to write the IPv6 setup separately as a lot of users will not need this.

pfSense Configuration

Start by going to VPN -> WireGuard, which should bring you to the Tunnels page. On the right side, click the green “+ Add Tunnel” button.

Enable Tunnel: Make sure this is checked.
Description: whatever you want, something to identify which clients will be connecting to this tunnel, e.g. Home Tunnel
Listen Port: You can change the default if you want, leaving it blank will use the default port of 51820
Interface Keys: Make sure you click the blue Generate button. This will populate the private and public keys.

Do not click Interface Assignments or WireGuard Interface Group until after you have saved the tunnel. It will clear the public key out.

Skip down to Interface Addresses, and assign a new, local IPv4 address, such as / 24. This ‘network’ will be what WireGuard clients use. They will still be able to communicate with your home LAN as long as you permit it in the firewall rules later on. You should have something like this (if this is your first tunnel, it will be tun_wg0 and not tun_wg1, which is fine):

Click on Save Tunnel at the bottom of the screen. Apply changes.

Firewall Rules

Go to Interfaces -> Assignments and add your new tun_wg0 interface from the list of Available network ports. Then go into the interface itself and make sure it is Enabled. I also like to change the name to something like CLIENT_VPN. You do not need to add any firewall rules to this interface. I found if I could use IPv6 without this interface but not IPv4. So I recommend creating it.

Next, go to Firewall -> Rules. You will notice you have 2 interfaces, one called WireGuard and the other called OPT## or whatever you may have renamed it to in the interface settings (e.g. CLIENT_VPN). I have found I do not need any rules under CLIENT_VPN/the OPT interface. Officially it says to add an allow all to any rule but it never generated any traffic, and so I disabled it and have never had any problems.

The main area we want to add rules in is the WireGuard interface. For simplicity, add a new rule in the WireGuard interface to allow all IPv4 traffic, any protocol, any source/destination. For advanced configuration, this is where you will limit which clients can access what. e.g. if you assign a client, you can firewall just that IP in here.

Navigate to Firewall -> Rules -> WAN and add a new rule to allow any UDP traffic to 51820 (or your configured port). Instead of a rule, you may need to add a NAT forwarding rule instead, to allow incoming traffic to 51820 (or your configured wireguard port) to forward to the wireguard tunnel IP address ( for example).

Apply changes.

Configuring Client(s)

First, we need to configure the client, before we can add them to the server. I realize this sounds a little backwards, but clients need to generate their own public key first, which then gets added to the server.

In the Windows client, click on the arrow beside New Tunnel and select Add empty tunnel

Then you’ll need to type some configuration in. The Public-key at the top of this create new tunnel wizard, we will need for later, to add into the Peer section of pfSense. Under the [Peer] section, you will need to use the public key of the tun_wg0 interface in pfSense.

A note on AllowedIPs: If you want to route ALL traffic through your VPN (lan & internet), specify If you only want to use your VPN to access your LAN networks, then add your network(s) separated by commas.

I FORGOT SOMETHING IN THIS SCREENSHOT. Under [Interface], add a line called DNS = which should point to your DNS servers you want to use. In order to resolve local hostnames this part is critical. If you’re only doing IP addresses it will be less important. e.g. DNS =,

I also just learned you can add DNS search domains to the list, so e.g. DNS =, mylan.local and mylan.local will get added to Search Domains.

PrivateKey = <automatically generated>
DNS = or other DNS IP running on your network.
Address = the IP this client is allowed to connect to the VPN with

PublicKey = The PUBLIC KEY from the PFSENSE server tunnel
AllowedIPs = the list of IPs you want to use this VPN to connect to (e.g. your local networks only, or for ALL internet traffic)
Endpoint = the public WAN IP address of your pfSense router

Adding Peers to pfSense

The server is now setup, we have our first client configured, and we can begin adding our peers. Navigate to VPN -> WireGuard. Then click on the Peers heading. Then click on the green “+ Add Peer“.

Enable: Make sure this is checked.
Tunnel: Select your tunnel interface that we created.
Description: A description of who this client is for easy reference.
Dynamic Endpoint: Leave this checked.
Keep Alive: It seems generally recommended to leave this blank, which is disabled.
Public Key: The public key from configuring the client in the previous step.


A lot of users get confused on this part. Generally one would assume this is where we control what networks the client is allowed to access; but that is actually done from the Firewall rules. THIS section of Allowed IPs is actually ‘which IPs is the client allowed to assign themselves on the VPN tunnel’.

So you need to decide, for every client, what their IP address will be on the VPN. You will almost always want this to be a /32 for an IPv4 and /128 for an IPv6 address. If you do it as a /24 then other clients will not be able to use the address space, and they will be unable to connect to the VPN at the same time.

So, for our first client, let’s do / 32 as that will match what we configured above.

Save peer and apply changes.


You should now understand the basics to creating a WireGuard VPN. Primary notes would be that the PUBLIC KEY of the server is used in the PEER section of the CLIENT. The PUBLIC KEY of the CLIENT is used in the peer section of the SERVER. You will never use, nor should you distribute, the private keys. The ones used in this article were temporary only.

You may also want to go to Services -> DNS Resolver and make sure it is listening on your tunnel interface, so you can use it as a DNS server for the VPN clients.

Also note you will not be able to connect to the VPN from the same network that it is running on. Switch to 4G/5G mobile internet and use a hotspot to test or etc.


IPv6 is the same as above, but add an additional IP to your tun_wg0 interface (either an fd00 local address, or a fully routable WAN address from your ISP. e.g. my ISP gives me a /56 block, so I use a whole /64 block for my VPN clients). Give them an allowed IP in the peer section, configure the client to also use that IP (Address =, 1200:1300:1400:1500::1015/128, and also modify AllowedIPs = to include IPv6 address spaces, or ::/0 for all IPv6 routing)

I will work on cleaning up the wording and adding some additional pictures as well. But I really need to get this site migrated to a new server first.

Enable Administrative Shares (C$, etc)

  1. Locate and then click the following registry subkey: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System
  2. On the Edit menu, point to New, and then click DWORD (32-bit) Value.
  3. Type LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy to name the new entry, and then press Enter.
  4. Right-click LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy, and then click Modify.
  5. In the Value data box, type 1, and then click OK.
  6. No reboot necessary.

From an administrative command prompt, you can simply run this instead:

reg add "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System" /v LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy /t REG_DWORD /d 1

Fixing HP M281 Error 49

Original Post:

USBSend.exe (from
USBSend.exe (from
Newer Firmware (links updated on 12-24-2023):
cljmfpM280fw_20230822.ENG.rfu (
cljmfpM280fw_20230822.nativeofficefonts.rfu (
cljmfpM280fw_20230822.ENG.rfu (
cljmfpM280fw_20230822.nativeofficefonts.rfu (
Original Firmware I used:
cljmfpM280fw_20220414.ENG.rfu (

Disclaimer: You do this at your own choosing and risk. This is for informational purposes only.

Printer must be installed to your computer via USB cable. When the printer is in FW Update mode, you can add a new printer, local port, USB001 (or 002/003/004), and choose or browse to the m281fdw driver.

If your printer is continually rebooting itself, you will probably need to put it into Firmware Update mode, which will require taking off the left panel of the printer. This isn’t hard, but it’s not super easy either – HP sure likes to add a lot of clips to hold it together. On the back of the printer is where I recommend starting, unscrew the 1 screw holding the side panel on and begin to pry it out and away from the network port and USB port. You’ll need a flathead screwdriver or some other prying type tool, to run along the top edge of the left panel and slowly pop it out.

When you get the panel most of the way off, unsnapping it from the front was tricky, I don’t remember fully what I did. Keep unprying from the top and bottom along the sides and it should eventually come loose.

We are looking for 2 pins on the right side of the formatter board:

I used a small screwdriver to wedge between the pins while I plugged the printer in:

European Models do not have pins, you’ll need to jump the pads in the middle (thanks to this post)

When the printer turns on it should almost immediately come to a Ready 2 Download screen:

HP m281fdw Ready 2 Download

Remove your FW Upgrade jumper.

Launching a Command Prompt

You’ll need to start a command prompt. If they were in your downloads folder you should be able to hold shift, and right-click an empty area of the folder (don’t have any files selected) and a menu option to Open PowerShell/Command Prompt should be in the list.

Another method would be to press your Windows Key + R, which should bring up a Run box. Type cmd into the box and press enter to start a command prompt.

If the files are on your desktop, type cd Desktop to ‘change directory’ (cd) into the Desktop folder. Otherwise cd Downloads.

Now all that’s left is to use USBSend to send the RFU file to the printer (note, you must use the ENG version first, ignore the typo in screenshot – you may want to rename the rfu file to something easier to type beforehand):

The format is: usbsend filename.rfu

The printer display will go through Downloading, Erasing, Programming, and should end you at this screen:

Turn the printer off, and then turn it back on, and it should boot-up normally and ask you to select language etc. That’s it!

Afterwards you can download the current firmware updater to install the ‘nativeofficefonts’ firmware: M280_Series_FW_Update-20220414.nativeofficefonts.exe (from

Windows Server 2019 – Stuck on Private Network Profile

Sometimes, randomly, Windows Server will switch to a Private Network Profile after a reboot, or just sporadically. Usually restarting the NlaSvc service will resolve this, but I have found if it keeps happening on reboot, this will also help resolve this issue.

In order to fix this, all I needed to change was the dependencies for NlaSvc (Network Location Awareness Service). From an Administrative command prompt I ran the following:

sc config NlaSvc depend=NSI/RpcSs/TcpIp/Dhcp/EventLog/DNS/NTDS

After rebooting, my profile finally showed as a Domain network instead of a Private Network.

Windows Server 2019 is available as a free 180 day evaluation:

PHP 7, MySQL 8 & WordPress on IIS

2/16/2021 – I still plan to update this more, just been busy with a new job!

This is a work in progress – pictures will be added, stories will be written, coffees will be spilled.

  • Use MySQL Workbench to create a user with a Standard Password, and create a Schema, then give your user permissions on the Schema.
  • Open PHP Manager in IIS Manager after installing so it can make some changes to php.ini..enable the extra modules in there as well.
  • You probably want to reboot after updating your PATHs and things just so IIS can find everything
  • I know this is vague…just trying to get it started.
    If this helps you in the mean time, great!
  • Dependencies for ImageMagick and other things…
  • IIS Installation
    • Control Panel – Programs & Features – Add/Remove Windows Components
      • [X] Internet Information Services
        • Web Management Tools -> [X] IIS Management Console
        • World Wide Web Services -> Application Development Features -> [X] CGI
        • Common HTTP Features
          • All except Directory Browsing (unless wanted), WebDAV Publishing
        • Health and Diagnostics
          • [X] HTTP Logging, Request Monitor
          • [X] Performance Features (both Dynamic + Static)
        • Security
          • [X] Basic, IP, Request Filtering, URL Authorization, (if needed) Windows Auth